Hearing loss is a disability that trails only that of physical disabilities. In Thailand, approximately 372,189 people have hearing loss. People with profound hearing impairment (prevalence of 0.2 – 0.5%) – those with a hearing threshold of 81 decibels (dB) or higher – do not typically benefit from the use of hearing aids. Therefore, a cochlear implantation is one alternative for treating severe hearing loss in both ears. In 2017, the Subcommittee for the Development of the National List of Essential Medicines selected “accessibility to cochlear implantations” as a priority issue to address. Currently, benefits for cochlear implantations between the different health insurance schemes are still unequal and capacity differences in the public healthcare system remain. Therefore, analyzing the readiness of the public healthcare system for providing quality cochlear implantation services is important and should be examined across the entire spectrum, ranging from cochlear implant surgery and rehabilitation to the accessibility and distribution of cochlear implantation services and estimation of the target population that requires these services. The results can be used as supporting evidence for policymakers in determining whether cochlear implantations should be included in the National List of Essential Medicines.