An increase in the number of cancer patients with anemia has been observed in Thailand due to an increase of cancer patients and the use of chemotherapy for treatment of cancers that cause bone marrow suppression. Although blood transfusion is an effective way of increasing the hemoglobin level in anemic patients, several limitations do exist with this approach. These limitations include: a severe shortage of blood donations and the high cost of screening of blood donations. As a result, an innovative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO ) has been considered as an alternative choice for the treatment of anemia caused by chemotherapy. However, a cost-utility analysis on rHuEPO for treating anemic cancer patients induced by chemotherapy compared to blood transfusion alone found that it is not cost-effective under the Thai health care setting.