This study aims to make a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventative interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective. The review of Thai literature included both published and unpublished (grey) literature, which are considered to be important in the Thai context. If local data regarding the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of interventions was not available, then a systematic search of evidence from Pubmed and Cochrane databases was included. The findings demonstrated that male/female condoms, street outreach programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, improvement of sexually transmitted infection treatment services and male circumcision were the only interventions to show strong evidence of reducing HIV infection among target populations. We found 38 Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions among the high risk populations in Thailand. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the effectiveness and costeffectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups.