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Abstract

An effective Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework helps vaccination programme managers determine progress and effectiveness for agreed indicators against clear benchmarks and targets. We aimed to identify the literature on M&E frameworks and indicators used in national vaccination programmes and synthesise approaches and lessons to inform development of future frameworks. We conducted a scoping review using Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework to identify and synthesise sources on monitoring or evaluation of national vaccination implementation that described a framework or indicators. The findings were summarised thematically. We included 43 eligible sources of 4291 screened. Most (95%) were in English and discussed high-income (51%) or middle-income (30%) settings, with 13 in Europe (30%), 10 in Asia-Pacific (23%), nine in Africa (21%), and eight in the Americas (19%), respectively, while three crossed regions. Only five (12%) specified the use of an M&E framework. Most (32/43; 74%) explicitly or implicitly included vaccine coverage indicators, followed by 12 including operational (28%), five including clinical (12%), and two including cost indicators (5%), The use of M&E frameworks was seldom explicit or clearly defined in our sources, with indicators rarely fully defined or benchmarked against targets. Sources focused on ways to improve vaccination programmes without explicitly considering ways to improve assessment. Literature on M&E framework and indicator use in national vaccination programmes is limited and focused on routine childhood vaccination. Therefore, documentation of more experiences and lessons is needed to better inform vaccination M&E beyond childhood.

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